The low-stem form of the tree is used for growing apple, pear, peach, plum and cherry. Although each of these crops has its own version of the low-stamp shape, the basic principles of pruning remain the same. The crown of a tree can take up to five years to form.
Flower buds, however, are often laid already in the third or fourth year, but a good harvest is usually obtained in another year.
Crown formation should be started with an annual tree. It is planted during a dormant period. Do not deepen the vaccination site. When planting, shorten the one-year-old seedling by bud to 70 cm from the soil level. This cut stimulates the formation of skeletal branches.
At the end of the growing season, select four strong branches to form the skeleton of the tree, making sure they are angled as close to the trunk as possible. The larger the angle, the higher the strength of the attachment to the trunk. Cut the strongest of these branches by half, and the less strong by two-thirds. All sections should be made on the outward-facing bud so that the extension shoot from the apical bud grows in the right direction next year.
After such a strong pruning, the growth of branches for the second summer will increase, the tree will increase in size, and it will be possible to form branches of the second order.
At the end of the second growing season, select four more evenly spaced branches in the crown. The skeleton will already consist of eight branches. Shorten them to the outer bud, depending on the degree of development, by half or two-thirds. To get overgrowing twigs, cut the side branches into four buds that are not needed to form second-order growths. If the tree is doing well, some of the outer side branches may not be pruned, and flower buds will form on them.
Well-spaced branches are formed that make up the skeleton of the tree. In early spring, shorten the strongest ones by half of the one-year growth, and the less powerful ones by two-thirds, pruning outward-facing buds. After that, flower buds are formed on the overgrown twigs and uncircumcised side branches. Cut the uncut side branches for a good flower bud. Do not touch annual side shoots on the outside of the crown. Now the tree develops in two directions - increases in size and begins to bear fruit.
In the fourth year of development, the gardener begins the most difficult pruning - pruning the conductors. It should not be done if:
1) the branch is strong enough;
2) the conductor grows from the outside of the crown, and not inside it;
3) the branch is healthy and intact;
4) a sufficient number of side branches has formed.
As soon as the main skeleton of the tree is formed and fruiting begins, cut the inner side branches into four buds, thereby forming the overgrown branches. Do not cut the outer side branches.
March, April. Cut the strong conductors in half and the weak ones two-thirds. Trim them down to the outer bud.
At the same time, if flower buds have already formed on well-spaced uncut branches, shorten the branches to the topmost flower bud.
Gardeners often do not distinguish between semi-standard and high-standard forms. Both of them differ from a low-stemmed one in a larger stem height and a larger crown.
A clean bole in a typical low-stem tree has a height of 50 cm from the soil level to the first skeletal branch, in a half-stem tree - about 1.2 m, and in a high-stem tree - 1.8 m.
Half-stem forms are usually used for plums, high-stem forms - for cherries.
Used material from the book by K. Brickell "Pruning plants".