The dwarf pyramid as one of the crown forms is widely used in industrial gardening. This is a fairly simple way of intensive production of apples and pears. Low-growing trees are grafted onto dwarf rootstocks.
In particular, the pear grown on quince is well suited for this forming method, which is also used for plums.
In apple and pear trees, they form a tree with a central conductor, about 2 m high and an average length of branches about 1 m; moreover, the crown tapers towards the top, forming a pyramid.
Dense and compact pyramids require constant monitoring. This is achieved by summer pruning (for early fruiting), the complete removal of all strong erect shoots, and the selection of a rootstock that is able to provide a balance between sustainable fruiting and fruit renewal.
When planting during a dormant period, cut a one-year seedling to 50 cm. Make a cut on the kidney opposite to the graft. As a result of this initial pruning, 4-5 strong shoots are formed. The topmost shoot grows vertically. Do not touch the plant again during the summer.
At the end of the first season, trim (only in areas with mild winters) the center conductor to about 20 cm from the base of the last growth on the opposite bud from last year's cut. This is done to keep the trunk as straight as possible. It would be easier not to cut the conductor at all. However, pruning is necessary to stimulate the formation of side branches. There can be four of these branches, located evenly around the trunk; cut them to 20 cm from the base.
In the second year, start summer pruning. Cut off all side shoots unnecessary for the skeleton into 3 sheets, and the second-order shoots - on the first sheet from the base. Start this pruning at the end of July for the pear and about two weeks later for the apple tree and continue throughout the summer until the uncut shoots are 20 cm long.In early spring, as before, cut the center conductor to 20 cm from the base of the last growth.
In the third and subsequent years, pruning continues in the same order. Shorten the center conductor annually to stimulate new growth. Prune it to the opposite bud from last year to maintain vertical growth. When the tree has reached the required height, completely remove the growth of the center conductor annually in May. Cut off the lateral growths of the conductors in the summer, as soon as they reach 45-50 cm.
Spring. Trim the center conductor to about 20 cm from the start of the annual growth. Remove all over-powerful shoots on the ring. Shorten the side branches with a downward-facing bud to keep the fruiting growths horizontal.
Prune side branches in summer too. Completely remove overgrown shoots. Sometimes it is necessary to shorten the branches for a downward growth in order to maintain the horizontal direction of the fruiting branches. The latter is best done in the spring. At the same time, thin out overgrown twigs, if necessary, to maintain the pyramidal shape.
When the tree has reached the required height (about 2 m), completely remove the annual growth of the center conductor annually in May. Thin out overgrown twigs, if necessary. Maintain the pyramidal shape of the crown by vigorously pruning and completely removing all vertical and overly strong growths.
Used material from the book by K. Brickell "Pruning plants".