Common peach (Persica vulgaris) is grown in warm areas of the temperate zone. The peach has a shape, characterized in that the skin of the fruit is smooth, not covered with fluff. These are nectarines.
Peaches and nectarines are quite resistant to low temperatures, but bloom so early that they are damaged by spring frost. This is why they are usually grown under the protection of walls or in a sheltered area of the garden. The most popular forms of peach and nectarine are fan and low-stemmed trees.
When planting in spring, cut the one-year-old sapling to 60 cm. Any strong side branches can be used to form first-order branches. Choose 4-5 of these branches, located at the greatest possible angle to the trunk, and cut them back to 10 cm.
At the end of the first growing season, skeletal branches will appear. Cut them in half to stimulate shoots by pruning outward-facing buds. Do not touch well-positioned side shoots. Remove the crossed branches.
Continue pruning the conductors for 4-5 years before switching to periodically pruning any two branches annually, pruning two to three-year growths to a suitable lateral shoot or growth bud. If the conductors of the remaining branches are not directed to the ground, they do not need to be touched. Otherwise, they need to be cut into a suitable side branch or ring. Such pruning is done so that the middle of the crown is not exposed, and fruiting is not transferred to the periphery.
In April, remove all long blind shoots and cut off the overlapping side branches into a ring. It is important to remember that the task of pruning an adult low-stemmed peach is to continually stimulate the formation of well-spaced new growths that will produce fruit the next year.
Usually the fan-shaped form is grown against the wall, but this can also be done near the trellis with the help of the slats fixed to it. In this case, the wire should be thick, and the spacing between its rows should be about 15 cm.
Plant a one-year-old tree during the dormant period and prune it in the spring to 40 cm from the graft site. Make a cut on a growth or triple bud (the latter consists of two flower and one growth buds).
In the first summer, shoots are formed from the growth buds of the tree. Choose three strong shoots so that one grows vertically and the other two grow at the same level on either side of the trunk. Remove the remaining shoots and buds completely. As the side branches left behind grow, tie them to battens fixed to the wire at a 45 ° angle. When they are stronger and 45 cm in length, remove the center conductor completely. Cover the cut with garden pitch.
At the end of the first growing season, loosen the side branches and cut them in half. Fasten the slats horizontally and tie the side branches to them again. Remove all other shoots.
As a result of trimming the conductors, shoots are formed on each branch. In summer, select four healthy shoots on each branch so that one is at the end of the branch and continues to grow, two at the top, and the fourth at the bottom. Thus, there will be eight branches. Carefully fold back each new shoot to the appropriate rail, fan out and leave the center open. Remove all other shoots completely. No pruning is needed at the end of the second growing season.
July August. Choose four strong shoots on each side branch. One at the top to continue the skeletal branch, and the fourth at the bottom. Remove all other shoots.
In the spring, shorten each guide wire by about a third, cutting it to the lower kidney.
In summer, select three evenly spaced side shoots on each cut branch and tie them to a support. Remove all other shoots.
During the dormant period, in early spring, lightly trim the new growths of the continuation - by about a quarter.
By this time, the center of the crown is filled with additional branches and the fruiting side branches can be preserved. Trim the growth of the continuation of the weakly growing branches.
When the tree reaches the required size, pinch the continuation shoots in summer to stop further growth. If necessary, prune them at the end of the season with a suitable replacement side shoot.
In summer, pinch up to 7 cm all the side shoots growing from or towards the wall.
The peach bears fruit on last year's growths. Therefore, pruning should be aimed at the constant annual formation of well-spaced replacement shoots and the removal of fertile branches. Select adjacent shoots at an early stage of growth at the base of existing fruiting branches as substitutes every year.
Fruiting lateral branches not only produce juicy fruits, but also form shoots along their entire length. Pick one replacement shoot at the base of the fruiting branch, the other in the middle.
The rest of the side shoots are not needed, so it is better to shorten them into two good leaves. With excess growth on these shoots, shoots of the second order are formed. Pinch them as they appear up to 2-3 cm.
The lateral replacement shoot (at the base of the fruiting branch) will bear fruit the next year. Pinch the top of it once it is 45 cm long. Remove excess shoots completely.
After removing the fruit, tidy up the tree by cutting off the lateral branches that have bore fruit and removing any dried, damaged and bare branches.
A great danger is the curliness of the peach leaves. As a result of this disease, the leaves usually fall off early and should be burned immediately. In early spring,
The preparation "Skor" perfectly helps from curly leaves.
Used material from the book by K. Brickell "Pruning plants".