Palmetta is one of the artificial forms of the crown of a tree, formed in one plane and consisting of a central trunk, from which horizontal branches (in the form of a palm leaf) extend at intervals of about 40 cm.
Palmette is usually formed on a trellis and placed on the border between different parts of the garden, for example, between the vegetable garden and fruit crops, along paths or against walls and fences. Many varieties of pear grow well near a shelter such as a wall.
Forming a palmette takes some skill, so try to do it yourself from the beginning.
Plant an annual tree that does not have premature shoots during dormancy. In the spring, trim the stem to about 40 cm from the ground, leaving room for a short stem with three good buds at the top (the bottom two should be oriented in the opposite direction).
In the spring, carefully direct the shoot from the upper bud vertically, and from the two lower ones to the right and left. It is difficult to form horizontal shoots in the first year without weakening growth, therefore it is better to orient them at an angle of 45 ° to the trunk at first. Tie them to the slats attached to the wire.
During the summer, gradually increase the angle of inclination, remembering that with its increase, growth weakens.
At the end of the first growing season, both side branches can already be bent horizontally, tied in this position to a wire. Cut (only in areas with mild winters) the central conductor up to 45-50 cm from the point where it joins the side branches. This stimulates its further growth and the appearance of a second layer of lateral shoots. Cut off excess side shoots three buds from the trunk. Shorten both horizontal branches by one third for a downward bud.
If development is going well during a favorable growing season, the central conductor need not be cut off.
At the end of the first growing season, bend both side branches horizontally and carefully tie to a wire.
The following years are a repetition of the first, at this time new tiers of side branches are formed. Bend the side branches horizontally and fasten them to the wire. Shorten the center conductor of a 2 year old fruit seedling to 45-50 cm from the last pair of side branches. Prune unnecessary side branches into three buds. Shorten the horizontal branches by one third, cutting them down to a downward-facing bud.
In early spring, cut the center conductor to 45-50 cm from the lower side branches, leaving three good buds to form the new center conductor and two horizontal branches of the second tier.
Trim the excess side branches on the main stem into three buds. Shorten the horizontal branches by a third by pruning them into downward-facing buds.
Spring. Shorten the center conductor to 45-50 cm from the branches of the second tier, leaving three good buds to form a new center conductor and two horizontal branches of the next tier. Cut off the excess side shoots on the main trunk into three buds. Shorten all annual growths of the horizontal branches by one third for the downward bud.
In the summer, cut off competitors growing from the trunk, leaving three leaves on them. Vertical shoots are formed on horizontal branches. They are cut in summer to three leaves from the base. Form and tie horizontal and vertical shoots as before. Continue the same spring (winter) and summer pruning procedure until the required number of tiers is formed (4-5).
And it depends on the soil and climatic conditions, the location of the plants and the strength of their growth. Finally, the center conductor and the side branches take their place. From now on, annually in the spring, remove entirely new apical shoots, and cut off subsequent growths in the summer.
Summer. Form the second tier of branches, as in previous years. Shorten the lower lateral shoots on the trunk and the lateral shoots of the horizontal branches by three leaves from the base.
Summer. When the last tier of horizontal branches is formed and the tree has taken up the space allotted to it, completely remove the new apical growth of the vertical and horizontal branches. Keep trimming them every summer.
Fruiting occurs on the fruit formations of the horizontal branches, which are formed in the summer by pruning the side branches into good flower buds as they emerge. It is better to remove all too strong growths entirely. Otherwise, they will be unproductive and competitive and will reduce the tree's fruiting rate.
After a few years of fruiting, the overgrowing twig system may become too complex. They need to be thinned out by removing weak and located in shaded areas or the lower part of skeletal branches.
Used material from the book by K. Brickell "Pruning plants".