Rose (Latin Rose) is a deciduous shrub (from 30 to 250 cm) or a branchy liana (up to 10 m), with flowers of a simple, double or semi-double shape. Roses come from the Rosehip genus, cultivated forms are bred by repeated crossing and selection.
Many varieties of park roses come from the Gallic rose (Rosa gallica), some varieties are forms of wild rose hips.
The shapes and colors of rose flowers are very diverse, the flowers can be either single or collected in inflorescences, fragrant or not, with or without thorns.
Garden roses were introduced to Europe at the end of the 18th century from Southeast Asia. The aroma of their flowers resembled the smell of tea, they possessed remontant (the ability to bloom repeatedly), but were too thermophilic for the European climate. After repeated attempts to cross these roses with European ones, at the beginning of the 19th century, varieties of garden roses were bred, which combined all the necessary qualities: decorativeness, remontability and winter hardiness.
Types of roses. There are 3 main sections of roses: wild (species), old (antique) and modern roses. These sections, in turn, are subdivided into groups.
Plant for growing in Ukraine - popular varieties:
A) hybrid tea varieties:
Ambassador - has large double fragrant flowers of a bronze-salmon color. Some inner petals have yellow-orange stripes
Double Delight (Double Delight) - large flowers on long shoots. The color is creamy white with red blotches.
B) Floribunda varieties:
Mercedes (Mercedes) - the variety is suitable for flower beds and lawns. The flowers are double, large, with a delicate aroma.
Duftwolke is a winter-hardy variety with early and abundant flowering. Terry flowers, with a strong aroma, diameter - 10-12 cm
C) Climbing (curly) roses:
Rumba (Rumba) - double flowers, red and yellow along the edge in the center, up to 6 cm in diameter. Winter-hardy variety.
Iceberg (Iceberg) - double flowers, large, white, diameter - up to 9 cm. Winter-hardy, disease resistant.
Purchase of seedlings. When choosing and buying rose seedlings, it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:
If the seedlings have dried roots, then they should be placed in water for a day before planting. Shorten shoots to 35 cm, cut roots to 25-30 cm, remove broken and dry parts.
Location and landing. With a small garden plot, the composition can be created in front of the building facade. If roses of different groups are planted, then they can be placed as follows: in the background - trellises with climbing roses, in front of them - park roses, even closer - grandiflora roses, even closer - hybrid tea roses, and closest of all - floribunda and miniature roses roses.
The distance between roses is selected depending on the group: hybrid tea, floribunda and polyanthus - 40-60 cm from each other; shrubs - 1-1.5 m; climbing (curly) - 1-2 m near arches, trellises, supports; miniature roses - 15-25 cm in the foreground of the flower garden; ground cover roses - 80-100 cm apart for landscaping slopes, large stones and other areas.
When choosing a location for planting roses, you need to be guided not only by the rules for drawing up a composition, taking into account the height, color and color intensity, the duration of flowering of roses, but also by the rules of agricultural technology.
Roses prefer an open, sunny place protected from the wind. They grow poorly in lowlands with poor air circulation and excessive moisture. It is advisable to plant roses on a small hill.
Roses can be planted in spring and autumn. It is recommended to plant in spring when the ground warms up to 10-12 ° C (April-May). It is better to plant grafted roses in the fall, from mid-September to mid-October. Before planting, the seedlings are placed in a bucket of water for 4-6 hours. After soaking, the roots are cut to a length of 30 cm. 3-4 shoots are left on the bush, the rest are removed. On the main shoots, 3 eyes are left.
For planting, moisture and air permeable light loamy soils rich in humus are best suited. If the soil is poor, then it should be improved before planting: add 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand, 1 part of humus to 2 parts of garden land. Strongly alkaline soil is acidified with peat and humus, strongly acidic earth is quenched by adding lime or ash. You can add complex fertilizer to the mixture. If the soils are damp, it is recommended to place a drainage of coarse sand and small pebbles at the bottom of the pit. First, a layer of pebbles (2-3 cm) is poured, then a layer of sand (8-10 cm).
Depending on the size of the seedlings and the group of roses, planting holes are dug. The depth can vary from 40 to 80 cm, the diameter is 40-50 cm. The dimensions are selected so that the roots of the seedling fit freely in the hole without bending upwards. The roots are straightened and covered with an earthen mixture, periodically tamping. The vaccination site must be buried about 5 cm into the ground, the place around the trunk is tamped and watered with 8-10 liters of water. Then the soil is loosened and covered to ground level. If the planting is autumn, the seedlings are spud up to protect against frost by 15-20 cm and left in this state until spring. If the planting is spring, the bushes are covered with non-woven material from the bright sun. The material is removed and the bushes are discharged when young shoots grow 3-5 cm.
Watering. Care must be taken to ensure that the roots of newly planted bushes do not dry out. Watering is best done in the early morning or evening. When watering, care must be taken that water does not fall on the leaves, in order to avoid the occurrence of fungal diseases.
Bushes of adult roses develop a root system that penetrates quite deep into the ground. Therefore, adult roses need additional watering only during prolonged drought. The usual watering rate is 4-5 liters per bush, for climbing roses - 10-12 liters per bush.
Loosening, mulching. It is recommended to loosen the soil around the bushes immediately after planting and 2-3 days after planting (to a depth of 2-3 cm). In general, during the first year after planting, it is necessary to monitor the loose state of the topsoil.
It is recommended to plant roses with peat mulch to reduce moisture evaporation and slow down the growth of weeds.
Top dressing. For good growth and abundant flowering, roses must be fertilized regularly. The first feeding is carried out at planting, by adding complex fertilizer to the planting pit. Plants planted earlier are fed at the beginning of shoot growth (complex fertilizers). The second top dressing - before flowering, with organic fertilizers (manure solution, chicken droppings). The third dressing can be done after flowering roses with mineral or organic fertilizer. At the beginning of September, the fourth top dressing is carried out - with potash fertilizers, to increase winter hardiness.
Trimming and shaping. Rose pruning is classified: 1) by time - spring and summer, and 2) by length - strong, moderate and low. The main purpose of pruning is to stimulate the development of lower buds, which will produce strong shoots.
With strong pruning, almost the entire shoot is removed, leaving only 1-2 eyes at the base. With medium pruning, the shoots are cut by about half, leaving 4-6 eyes. With weak pruning, the top is cut off at the shoot and 8-10 eyes are left.
In spring pruning: remove weak, diseased and frozen shoots, shorten old shoots by about a third. In summer pruning: rootstock shoots, shoots that do not end in buds, underdeveloped shoots and faded flowers with part of the shoot are removed.
Important: a) frozen buds must be removed to avoid possible infection; b) pruning of roses cannot be carried out in the fall so that the bush has more strength for wintering.
The nuances of pruning certain groups of roses:
Hybrid tea, polyanthus and Floribunda roses: in the 1st year after planting they are pruned to a height of 10-15 cm from the surface of the earth to form flowers on young shoots. In the spring, old shoots are shortened by 1/3 of the length in hybrid tea, in polyanthus and floribunda - old shoots are cut off strongly, and last year's ones are weak.
Climbing roses: in the spring they cut off old, dry and weak lashes, leaving 3-5 strong shoots. The faded flowers are removed.
Groundcover roses: do not touch last year's shoots, because flowers will appear on them, old shoots are rejuvenated by applying strong pruning to them.
Blooming roses. The timing of flowering and the formation of buds is influenced by the method of pruning to length.
If you use a weak pruning, then shoots will grow from the upper and middle buds and bloom in June. Flowering will be abundant, but unsuitable for cutting into bouquets. If you apply strong pruning, then remontant varieties may not bloom at all, hybrid tea will bloom a month later, but on long and powerful shoots. Medium pruning is used for a fairly abundant flowering and the possibility of cutting for a bouquet.
Important: In the first year after planting, the buds of young roses are best cut off almost completely so that the plant does not exhaust itself with flowering.
Reproduction and grafting. Roses are propagated by cuttings, grafting, layering and dividing the bush.
Most often, climbing roses are propagated by layering. To do this, in early spring, several circular cuts on the bark are made on the stem. Then it is bent down, laid in a groove and pinned to the ground. Sprinkle with earth on top, but so that the top of the shoot is outside. The soil above the shoot is kept moist so that nutrients enter through the cuts in the bark and roots form. The next spring, the layers are separated.
The easiest way to reproduce is by dividing the bush. Roses are dug up in early spring and the bush is divided in such a way that there are few roots and shoots in each part. For better survival, the roots and shoots are shortened.
Diseases and pests. Roses are susceptible to fungal diseases, as well as the attack of insects: aphids, leaf rollers, rose sawfly and spider mites.
To prevent fungal diseases: the bushes are treated with Bordeaux liquid before bud break and during growth; choose varieties resistant to fungus; do not allow thickening of landings. Before insecticide treatment, the bushes are pruned, removing affected shoots to a healthy bud or wood. To exclude addiction, plants are treated no more than 2 times with the same drug.
Plants in winter. Preparation of roses for wintering consists in feeding with potash fertilizers, breaking off leaves to a height of 30-50 cm and hilling bushes with peat or sand to a height of 30-40 cm. You also need to cut out all unripe shoots and tops of the stems. Tall roses are bent to the ground, and climbing roses are removed from the supports, putting spruce branches under the branches.
When the temperature is below zero, it is recommended to cover the roses. For shelter, a frame is used so high that there is a layer of air between the roses and the covering material. 3 layers of nonwoven material and a layer of roofing material are applied to the frame so that snow can accumulate on top.
In early spring, after the snow melts, the roses are unbroken, diseased shoots are cut off and the leaves are removed. Then the roses are covered again until the ground warms up. In April, the shelter is removed, spring pruning and fertilizing are carried out, loosened and mulched.
Interesting facts: Roses naturally lack the blue pigment gene. But in 2004, Japanese growers transplanted such a gene from pansies to a rose. Thus, the first blue rose, or rather bluish-lilac, was bred. Since 2009, blue roses have been sold in Japan.
There are 3 main sections of roses: wild (species), old (antique) and modern roses. These sections, in turn, are subdivided into groups.
1. Species or wild roses (Wild Roses). A characteristic feature of this section is a one-time (per year) flowering and natural appearance of the bush. They are divided into climbing and non-climbing roses.
2. Old or old roses (Old Garden Roses). This section includes roses that were cultivated until 1867, when the first hybrid tea rose "La France" was bred. Subdivided into the following groups:
Alba (A), or alba rose hybrids - Alba (A);
Ayrshire (Ayr) - Ayrshire (Ayr);
Bourbon roses and their climmers (B) —Bourbon & Climbing Bourbon (B & Cl B);
Boursalt (Bslt) - Boursalt (Bslt);
Bractiata, or hybrids of the r. bractiata (Bq) - Hybrid Bracteata (HBc);
Gallic (Gal), or hybrids of the r. gallica (French roses) - Hybrid Gallica (HGal, G);
Damask (D) - Damask (D);
Chinese (Bengal) and their hybrids - Hybrid China (HCh);
Moss (Moss) - Moss (M);
Noisette (Noise) - Noisette (N);
Portland (P) - Portland (P);
Repair (Rem) - Hybrid Perpetual (HP);
Sempervirens (Sem) - Hybrid Sempervirens (HSem);
Setigera (Set) - Hybrid Setigera (HSet);
Hybrids r. Thetis (Ft) - Hybrid Foetida (HFt);
Centifolia (C) or columnar - Centifolia (C);
Tea roses and their clays - Tea (T);
Eglantheria (Eg), or hybrids of the p. eglantheria (synonym for rubiginosis) - Hybrid Eglanteria (HEg).
3. Modern garden roses (Modern Garden Roses). This section includes all the groups of roses that have appeared after La France. This most numerous section includes the groups:
1) Hybrid tea roses (Chg.) - Hybrid Tea (HT) - the most popular and numerous group of roses. In Holland and France they are called Large-flowered. The height of medium-sized bushes is 60-80 cm, tall bushes - 80-100 cm, the diameter of the flowers is 8-12 cm. The shape and color of double flowers are very diverse - orange, coral, even green! Flowers grow singly or are collected in inflorescences. Hybrid tea roses bloom from June to autumn cold. For the winter, roses of this group cover and spud the root collar.
2) Roses Floribunda (Fl.) - Floribunda (Fl.) - one of the most popular and numerous groups. Roses of this group, along with polyanthus, are also called Klumbovy roses. They are widely used for landscaping. They are distinguished by good winter hardiness and disease resistance. There are undersized, medium and tall (over 1 meter) varieties. Floribunda roses resemble hybrid tea roses in size and shape. The flowers are simple, double, flat, cupped and goblet. The colors are very diverse. They bloom continuously from early summer to late autumn. Many fragrant varieties.
In most countries, Floribunda roses include Grandiflora (Grand) roses - Grandiflora (Gr.). These roses are distinguished by abundant flowering, like the Floribunda group, and the size and shape of the flower, like those of the Hybrid Tea.
3) Polyanthus roses (Pol.) - Folyantha (Pol.) - a group of compact roses up to 60 cm high. Widely used in landscaping before the spread of Floribunda roses. Currently they are used in potting culture, in winter gardens and in apartments. The flowers are small, 3-5 cm in diameter, collected in large inflorescences. Primary colors: pink, red, white. Flowering - from early summer to autumn. When disembarking in open ground, they need shelter for the winter.
4) Climbing roses - Climbing roses. A group of roses with long creeping or arched shoots that require support. Most varieties have shoots ranging from 3 to 5 meters long. Flowers of various shapes, from simple to densely double, with a diameter from small 2.5 cm to large 9 cm. Flowering is mainly single, but very abundant - from mid-June to mid-August. They winter well under cover, are quite resistant to diseases.
Climbing roses are also subdivided into two subgroups: true climbing or small-flowered climbing roses, often called Rambler and Largeflowered Climber, called climbers - roses with larger flowers, often fragrant, close in structure to hybrid tea roses ...
5) Ground cover roses - Bodendecker. This group of roses has long, arched shoots and the ability to grow quickly. They are distinguished by high winter hardiness and disease resistance, and are easy to care for. Flowers are small, collected in inflorescences. Flowering is mostly single, but abundant and long lasting. Применяются при оформлении склонов, каменистых горок, цветников и бордюров.
6) Roses Shrub (Shrub, abbr. S.), or Modern Shrub (Modern Shrub Roses). Another name for this combined group is Shrub roses. In the Russian version, these roses were called Sempletist. The group includes roses with high growth, long and abundant flowering, which are quite resistant to wintering and disease. This group also includes Austin's English roses - English roses.
7) Miniature roses (Min.) - Miniature (Min) - relatives of hybrid tea and polyanthus roses. They are characterized by low growth - up to 40 cm. The flowers are mainly small, with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm. Abundant flowering, suitable for potting, indoors. Some varieties are suitable for open ground; they need shelter for wintering.
8) Roses Mini-Flora, or Patio - Mini-Flora or Patio - also differ in their low growth - 45-50 cm. They occupy an intermediate position between Miniature and Floribunda roses. Suitable for curbs and garden containers.
9) Canadian Roses - Canadian Roses - a fairly new group of roses, which is highly frost-resistant. For the winter, it does not need shelter, it is also distinguished by its resistance to diseases. Flowering is profuse and long lasting. In appearance, they are similar to shrub roses, and some are similar to ground cover roses.