Fig (Ficus carica) is a deciduous tree of the mulberry family. It got its name from the province of Caria in Asia Minor. A close relative of indoor ficuses. Under natural conditions, it grows up to 8-10 meters. A mature tree produces about 60-70 sweet fruits.
According to various sources, figs were grown from 4000 to 6000 years ago, earlier than millet and wheat.
Other names for figs: ficus carica, fig tree, fig, wine berry, fig, fig tree
Fig is a very unpretentious plant, easily grown in an apartment. Parthenocarpic varieties are used for growing fruits, which do not require pollination. Indoor varieties are much smaller and grow more slowly than trees outdoors. A good place to grow indoor figs is a glazed balcony that does not freeze in winter.
Indoor figs are popular varieties:
Sochi 7 - fruits are large (up to 60g), yellow, ripen in late summer, fruiting once a year;
Kadota - pear-shaped fruits weighing up to 100 g;
Fig Honey - bears fruit with yellow-green fruits (weighing up to 70 g), which resemble a small pear in shape.
You can buy seedlings of the Honey Fig variety in our store
Lighting. Figs need a lot of light. A good place to grow it would be the sill of the south or southeast window. With a lack of lighting, figs may stop bearing fruit.
Temperature. Equally, the fig tree loves warmth. In summer, the optimum temperature is 21-26 ° C, in winter, when the plant is resting, about 8-12 ° C.
Air humidity. Indoor figs prefer regular spraying, especially during hot weather.
Watering. The plant needs abundant watering, especially during the growing season. From insufficient watering, the leaves of the figs curl and fall off. With severe overdrying, the leaves may fall off completely. When the time for fruiting comes, watering is reduced so that the fruits are not watery. Aeration is useful for the tree - loosen the soil near the roots with a blunt wooden stick weekly.
Top dressing. In early February, feed the plant with Ammophos in a proportion of 5 grams per 1 liter of water. In the spring and summer, fertilize figs with organic and mineral fertilizers once every 2 weeks.
Transfer. Figs need to be replanted before the growing season - in January, at the latest in February. The soil for the plant is prepared from 2 hours of leaf, 2 hours of sod land, 1 hour of sand and 1 hour of peat. It is useful to add a little crushed egg shells to the soil.
Transfer figs with a lump of earth into a pot 1-2 cm wider than the previous one. At the bottom, be sure to lay a drainage made of broken brick, expanded clay, in a layer of 2-3 cm.
If the root system is rotten, trim off the diseased roots with a sharp knife and sprinkle with crushed charcoal. When transplanting, make sure that the root collar is at soil level. Usually, the tree is transplanted at intervals of 1-2 years.
Trimming and shaping. Young figs grow quickly, so you need to cut off strongly growing shoots in time. When 6-7 sheets appear, you need to pinch the upper bud. Of the side shoots, it is better to leave 3-5, which in the future will also need to be pinched.
Flowering and fruiting: Figs bloom with very small flowers that hide inside the fruit. The first ovary appears on young shoots in February, the fruits ripen in summer - in July. To make the fruits of the figs sweeter, watering should be slightly reduced and the tree should be placed in the most illuminated place. Typically, figs bear fruit once a year, but it may also please twice: in July and October. The weight of the fruit varies depending on the variety - from 45 to 155 g.
Reproduction. For reproduction, cuttings, seeds and root suckers of figs are used. For grafting, cuttings from the lower and middle sections of a fruiting tree are most suitable. Prune them in winter, before the beginning of the growing season. The best cuttings for propagation are semi-freshened with 3-4 internodes, 15-20 cm long.There should be two cuts per cutting: the lower oblique under the kidney by 1.5 cm and the upper straight one above the kidney by 1 cm.
The stalk is placed in a container with warm water until the release of milky juice stops. Then they take out and stick 3-4 cm into a glass filled with light soil (2/3), sprinkled with river sand (1/3). Cover the glass with a transparent jar or bag and put it in a warm place. Periodically, the sand is moistened, and the glass with the handle is ventilated. After 4-6 weeks, the cutting will take root and can be transplanted into a pot with a mixture of turf, leafy soil and sand.
Diseases and pests. It is affected by the scale insect, mealybug, spider mite.
Plant in winter. Closer to winter, the fig leaves will begin to fall off, the plant prepares for wintering. The best place at this time would be a frost-free room with a temperature of 5-7 ° C. During this period, watering is reduced, the plant is not fed.
Useful properties of figs: Fig fruits are a storehouse of vitamins A, B1, B2, C, trace elements, fiber, proteins, organic acids. Recommended for people with anemia, cardiovascular diseases. It is used as a remedy for the treatment of sore throats, colds, is used as a diuretic. Since it contains a lot of sugars, it is not recommended for people with diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease.
Figs are good both fresh and dried. This is one of the most delicious dried fruits.