Kiwi or "Chinese gooseberry" (Actinidia chinesis) is a large tree-like vine. It got its name because of the similarity of the fruit with a bird living in Australia and New Zealand. The homeland of the kiwi is China.
This plant is grown for its delicious fruits in New Zealand, Chile, Abkhazia, in the Krasnodar Territory of Russia. Fruit weight ranges from 75 to 100 g. Kiwi fruits are actually large berries from which jam, jelly, salads are made.
Kiwi can be successfully grown in the garden and even in the apartment. The age of adult vines reaches 30-40 years. Berries contain 16-18% sugar, rich in vitamin C.
Kiwi or Actinidia are popular varieties:
Actinidia kolomikta or Amur gooseberry - the berries are sweet, have a pineapple flavor, when ripe they acquire an amber color; winter-hardy variety;
Actinidia sharp-toothed or Actinidia arguta - liana length up to 20 m, berries with a pleasant delicate aroma, similar to gooseberries; winter-hardy variety.
Lighting. Actinidia loves a well-lit place. This climbing vine can be placed on a well-lit balcony or veranda. In a shaded area, the development of the Chinese gooseberry slows down. To grow, she needs a support or trellis.
Temperature. In the spring and summer, the optimum temperature is 20-25 ° C. In winter, it is preferable to give the plant a rest by placing it in a cool room.
Air humidity. Kiwi prefers high humidity. In the hot season, it is recommended to regularly spray the vine.
Watering. During the period of active growth, kiwi needs abundant watering. It is necessary that the entire earthen lump is completely saturated with water. The excess water remaining in the pan must be drained.
Top dressing. From the beginning of spring, you need to regularly feed the plant. Feeding frequency: 1 time in 2 weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers.
Transfer. For the normal development of atinidia, a soil of medium density is needed. To prepare it, you need to mix in a 2: 1: 1 ratio of garden soil, sand, peat. It is recommended to boil the substrate for 5-10 minutes before use to kill harmful insects and bacteria. You can add biohumus to the composition for better fruiting.
The pot for the transplant is taken 3-5 cm wider than the previous one. At the bottom of the pot, it is recommended to put a 1-2 cm layer of drainage from broken shards, expanded clay, brick chips. Transplant frequency: young plants - annually (possibly 2 times a year), 5-6 year old vines - once every 2-3 years.
Trimming and shaping. In order for the vine to bush better in the spring, it is cut a little.
Flowering and fruiting: Kiwi blooms with white large flowers in late spring. In order to get berries, female and male plants are needed: for one male 5-7 female plants. Female flowers can be pollinated with either plucked male flowers or a cotton swab.
To obtain larger fruits, it is recommended to remove some of the ovaries on female plants. The berries of the Chinese gooseberry ripen closer to October.
Reproduction. Kiwis are usually propagated by cuttings, seeds, or root suckers.
Suitable for reproduction are semi-lignified or lignified cuttings with 2-3 buds. The lower cut is oblique directly under the kidney, the upper one is straight, 1 cm higher than the kidney. The cut cuttings are placed in a dish with water for a day, then for a day in water with the addition of root (heteroauxin). Then they are placed in a peat-based substrate or pure peat and covered with a jar. To maintain humidity, periodically spray and water. For successful rooting, the substrate temperature is maintained at 4-6 ° C above the ambient temperature.
After about three weeks, the cutting forms roots. The rooted stalk is transplanted into a pot filled with a substrate of peat and sand mixed in equal proportions. Young plants with a developed root system are transplanted into pots for further cultivation.
Diseases and pests. Kiwis are hardly affected by insects. However, cats can rake the soil and damage the roots of young plants. In spring, it is recommended to braid a pot with a netting with a diameter of 30-40 cm and a height of 50-60 cm.
Plants in winter. To grow full-fledged fruits, the plant needs rest from December to February. It is better to place the liana in a cool room and reduce watering.
Useful properties: Kiwi fruits are extremely rich in vitamin C. Compared to apples, its amount is forty times more, and compared to lemons - ten times.