By about the fifth year after planting, the apple and pear trees slow down their growth due to the already intense fruiting.
Therefore, further we will mainly consider the issues of the formation of skeletal branches, that is, a fairly strong pruning, stimulating the formation of powerful, well-located branches that can withstand a large load of fruits.
Only after the gardener has created the skeleton of the tree, he can proceed to the formation of overgrown branches on it.
Overgrowing twigs are formed, as a rule, in a natural way, but you can also cause their appearance by detailed pruning, spending it in spring or summer.
A lateral growth cut into four buds in winter will give one or two shoots from the apical buds in the summer, and the lower growth buds are usually transformed into flower buds. Once these buds are fully formed, trim the growth to the topmost flower bud. This is how the foundation for the formation of overgrowing branches is laid.
From four to five flowers of each bud, at least one fruit is set in good conditions. If the trees are well fed, a new flower bud will form behind the ovary. Over the years, the overgrown twigs can become very complex and thickened. In this case, they should be thinned out, removing the weakest fruit formations and those that are located on the lower part of the branches.
Sometimes apple and pear varieties are divided according to which branches they bear fruit on - short or long. This is an unnecessary complication. The methods suggested below are suitable for all varieties.
The first year is March-April. Trim the one-year lateral growth into four buds.
The second year is March - April. Cut a side branch for a flower bud.
Year 3 - Fruiting on a trimmed side branch
Fourth year - The beginning of the formation of overgrowing twigs.
Do not prune large lateral growths on the outside of the tree. The next year, a new shoot is formed from the apical bud of each uncircumcised lateral growth, and most of the remaining buds are transformed into flower buds.
In spring, prune all lateral growths at the topmost flower bud. Next summer, the trimmed lateral growth will bear fruit throughout.
The fruiting shoot is either kept as an elongated fruit twig, or cut to 2-3 cm from its base.
Such a strong pruning stimulates the formation of a new lateral shoot, and the entire reproductive cycle begins anew. The best method of pruning apple and pear is to combine detailed and renewing pruning.
As the tree matures, the overgrown branches become thickened and require thinning.
First Year - In the spring, choose strong, well-positioned lateral growth and do not prune it.
The second year is March-April. With further growth of the lateral branch, flower buds are formed on last year's increments. Delete the gain of the current year completely.
The second year is Summer-Autumn. Fruiting on trimmed lateral growth.
The third year is March-April. Cut off the fruiting growth to 2-3 cm from its base. From this hemp, at the end of the growing season, a new strong lateral shoot is formed. It is not circumcised and the reproductive cycle begins anew.
Used material from the book by K. Brickell "Pruning plants"