Sakura (Latin Prunus serrulata) is an ornamental tree of the Pink family. Sakura grows in the Himalayas: Japan, China and Korea. Sakura also grow in Moldova, Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, in Transcarpathia. More than 300 species of this wonderful plant are grown in Japan.
Sakura blooms in spring with bright pink or white flowers and blooms for about a week. Only after flowering leaves appear on the trees.
Sakura is such a revered plant in Japan that since 1992, Sakura Blossom Day has been introduced in the country. In Japanese culture, sakura occupies a special place - songs and poems are dedicated to it, dishes and clothes are decorated with its images.
The national tradition of admiring sakura blossom, hanami, is very popular in Japan. Annually on television, they broadcast information about the time and places of cherry blossoms.
Sakuras include the following types:
Small-sawed cherry (Prunus serrulata) is an ornamental tree 8-15 m high with large leaves, which turn purple in autumn. Large (4-5 cm) double flowers of pink or white color, collected in a brush of 7-9 pcs. Leaves and flowers bloom simultaneously in May.
Short-bristled cherry (Cerasus subhirtella) is an ornamental tree 9-10 m high, at home - up to 20 m.It blooms in inflorescences of 2-3 light pink flowers (about 2 cm) until the leaves appear.
Sakhalin cherry (Cerasus sachalinensis) is a tree with a spreading crown, 8-12 m high. The leaves are red in spring, and maroon in autumn. It blooms in May with light pink flowers (2-3 cm), which later turn white. Leaves bloom at the same time as flowering.
Ferruginous cherry (Prunus glandulosa) is a spherical shrub up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves 3-6 cm long, bloom simultaneously with flowering. Double flowers are white or pink.
Selection and purchase of seedlings. When choosing seedlings, you need to consider the following factors:
Location and landing. Sakuras prefer an elevated place, grow well on gentle (no more than 10 °) slopes. On damp lowlands or hollows, trees may freeze. The soil should be non-acidic, loamy, well-drained and nutritious.
Sakura is usually planted in spring, but planting is also possible in autumn. In any case, it is necessary to shelter a young tree or bush from frost for the winter.
Watering. During active growth, during the laying of flower buds and sakura ovary, additional watering is required. This is especially true when natural precipitation is insufficient.
Top dressing. The lack of nitrogen and potassium in the soil, organic matter, significantly affects the growth and development of cherry blossoms. Depending on the fertility of the soil and the content of minerals per 1 square meter of soil, apply:
Trimming and shaping. In adult and young trees, dry branches that thicken the crown are cut off. Pruning is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow. Cutting points of live branches must be treated with garden varnish.
Important: Cherry blossom pruning should be very careful to avoid gum leakage.
Gum removal is the formation of gum, a sticky substance in places where the trunk and branches are damaged. For the prevention of gum removal, it is necessary to drain the soil, treat frost cracks in time, and organize proper watering.
Flowering and fruiting: Sakura is not grown for harvesting fruits, but in order to admire its amazingly beautiful flowering. Sakura bloom begins in spring, in April-May, depending on the variety, and lasts about a week. The color of the flowers is from snow-white to bright pink.
Reproduction and grafting. Wild (botanical) species are propagated by seeds and root sprays, varietal sakura by cuttings and grafting. The washed, undried seeds are sown in the summer, immediately after harvest.
When propagating by cuttings in July, semi-freshened shoots 10-12 cm long are cut and placed in a soil mixture of peat and sand. The most favorable temperature for rooting is within 16-18 ° C. When the cuttings have roots, they are seated in cups. Rooted cuttings overwinter at a temperature of 5-8 ° C. In the spring, they are transplanted into large pots. After 2-3 years, they can be planted in open ground.
Inoculation of varietal sakura is carried out in the spring on seedlings of their own variety, which ensures better survival.
Diseases and pests. Sakura can be affected by a fungal disease - coccomycosis. The plant can become infected with it from during periods of dampness from fallen and unharvested leaves. For prevention, in early spring, spray the crown with nitrafen in a proportion of 200 g per 10 liters of water. Spraying can be done 2-3 weeks after flowering.
Important: you can not process sakura during flowering, so as not to poison the pollinating bees.
Aphids may appear on the leaves, ants usually carry it on the tree. It is recommended to apply a thin layer of medical petroleum jelly around the barrel to prevent the ants from walking on it.
Plants in winter. To prepare sakura for wintering at the end of summer, you can feed it with potash and phosphorus fertilizers (not nitrogen!). Conduct 2-3 waterings in the hole near the trunk. Before the onset of frost, tie the stems and grafting sites with covering material, the trunk and bases of the skeletal branches with agrofibre.
Interesting facts: The sakura image is used on the coats of arms of the Japanese police and military forces, as well as on the headdresses of students and the military, as an indicator of rank.
In addition, sakura is considered a traditional symbol of female youth and beauty.