Pear (Latin Pyrus) is an ornamental tree from the fruit genus, belongs to the Rosaceae family. There are 60 known species and about a thousand varieties of pears.
The most common type is the common pear, or Wild pear (Pýrus commúnis), on the basis of which most of the cultivars grown in European countries are derived. The supposed homeland of this fruit tree is Ancient Greece.
The crown of the plant is pyramidal, prone to thickening. Growth depends on the pear variety and conditions of detention, usually from 5 to 25 meters. The flowering period is from April to May, at this time the tree is decorated with small, fragrant, five-petal flowers of white color.
Types of pear trees:
Ussuri pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) - found in deciduous forests. It grows up to 10-15 meters, has a dense spreading crown with oval leaves. Fruits are yellowish-gray in color.
Chinese pear (Pyrus serotina) - often seen in China, Japan, Israel. Tall tree, with large heart-shaped leaves. The fruit is appreciated for its juicy taste and high potassium content. Ripe fruits are stored no longer than a week, after which they turn black and lose their taste.
Caucasian pear (Pyrus caucasica) - reaches a height of 20-25 meters. Differs in a pyramidal crown and thorny arcuate branches. Fruits are greenish-yellow in color, tolerate transportation well, are considered fit for consumption within 1.5 months after harvest.
Snow pear (Pyrus nivalis) - average tree height, about 4 meters. The plant is drought-resistant, does not react well to severe frosts. Has a wide crown, blooms with large white flowers. The fruits are sour and tart; it is recommended to use processed form.
Pears for growing in Ukraine - popular varieties:
Early varieties: ripening of fruits in summer:
Pear Klapp's favorite. It is rightfully considered the queen among early ripening pears. Tall tree with a wide, not too dense crown. Begins to bear large, elongated, short-pear-shaped fruits in the seventh year after planting. The harvest reaches its maturity in late July or early August. The early ripening pear gives aromatic, juicy fruits with a rich sweet taste.
Bera. A vigorous, not too branched, winter-hardy tree has a high yield. Enters fruiting season in the fifth year after planting. Fruits are elongated, medium in size with a delicate, thin skin and sweet-juicy pulp, ripen in early August. Harvesting is necessary a week before their biological ripeness.
Late varieties: ripening of fruits in autumn-winter:
Pear Talgar beauty. Medium-sized tree with a pyramidal crown and pointed leaves, withstands severe frosts and drought perfectly. The first harvest can be expected five years after planting. Fruits, as a rule, are large, regular pear-shaped, sometimes with a slightly sloping top. The peel of the fruit is glossy, yellow in color with red blotches. Harvesting occurs at the end of September, and full ripening occurs around the beginning of November.
Victoria. Autumn pear, withstands frost and relative drought well, also resists fungal diseases. It is widely distributed in industrial and consumer gardening, mainly in the southern and central regions of Ukraine. The time for fruiting begins six to seven years after planting. Fruits are large, greenish in color with a large pink blush, are distinguished by a delicate, sweet, slightly sour taste. Pears hold on tightly to the tree until the first half of September.
Selection and purchase of seedlings. For planting, it is best to use 1-2 year old seedlings. Carefully inspect the condition of the trunk, branches and root system. The fruit tree must be strong and free from flaws.
Location and landing. A pear is usually planted in spring or autumn. In the case of spring planting, the seedling should be placed in a pre-prepared planting site in the fall.
A pear needs sufficient lighting for good growth and productivity. With a lack of light, the color fades and the taste of the fruit deteriorates. Therefore, you should not lodge a pear in shaded areas. Also, the tree will react poorly to lowered terrain, where cold air is concentrated. An excellent option would be to plant a pear in a well-lit place on a hill, this can be the south side of the garden.
The soil is suitable loose, rich in nutrients, non-clayey, which allows moisture to pass through well.
To prevent trees from interfering with each other, the distance between them should be at least 3 meters. Tall varieties need to be planted at a distance of 5-6 meters; it is enough to keep a distance of about 4.5 meters between compact representatives of pears.
A pear is planted in a pre-dug hole 60 cm deep with a nutrient mixture at the bottom. If the soil is fertile enough, you can do without additional fertilization.
If you find damaged roots and branches on the seedling, carefully cut them off, remove the leaves. Keep dried seedlings in water for 1-2 days.
Make the hole even, not far from the center of the hole, install a stake, which serves as the basis for correct growth and formation. Having installed the seedling in the pit, so that the root collar rises 5-6 cm above the edge of the pit, start sprinkling it with earth, tamping the soil a little with your foot. After the soil is firmly trampled down, be sure to water and tie the tree to a peg.
Watering. The pear does not need too frequent watering; waterlogging of the soil leads to decay of the root system. In the summer, it is necessary to maintain uniform moisture, the amount of water depends on the age of the tree, from 2 to 3 buckets of water are consumed for each year of life. It is important to water not close to the trunk, but under the crown, it is here that the main part of the suction roots is concentrated. You can install a spinning sprayer and periodically simulate real rain on the tree.
Loosening, mulching. Keep the soil clean, do not overgrow with weeds. To suppress the growth of weeds, it is recommended to plant in the garden between the rows of pears siderates, such as lupine.
With the arrival of spring, it is necessary to loosen the topsoil, this will improve the air regime and improve the ability to receive moisture and nutrients. In order not to harm the main roots during digging, place the shovel with the edge against the trunk.
Top dressing. In order for the pear to please with a rich harvest, starting from the second year after planting, start applying special fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers are applied annually in spring, 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m² of the trunk circle.
Organic - every three years in late fall.
Calculation of fertilizers per 1 m²:
Trimming and shaping. It is imperative that sanitary pruning and shaping should be carried out, the earlier you start, the more chances that the tree will develop correctly, branch and bear fruit in the future. Already one - a two-year tree needs to determine the necessary branches and carry out formative pruning.
Of the 8 lateral branches, 4 even, regularly growing skeletal branches are left, which are at the same distance from each other. In the future, you need to look at the condition of the tree, for adult trees for rejuvenation, it is enough to remove small, inwardly growing shoots in time, as well as remove broken branches.
Flowering and fruiting. In the seventh year after planting the pear, the first, tasty fruits appear. From juicy, sweet fruits, you can prepare jam, marmalade, juices or use it fresh. The harvested crop can be stored for about 250 days, after this period the fruits lose their original appearance, lose their marketable and taste properties.
With proper care, the yield per tree is about 100 kg. With a lack of moisture, lighting and nutrients, the yield can be low.
Reproduction and grafting. The pear is propagated by grafting. Chokeberry or Irga is considered the best stock.
The strongest shoot is selected at a height of 100 cm and a pear is grafted onto it. The procedure is performed every two years.
Diseases and pests. The most common pear diseases are scab, fruit rot, and rust.
Scab. A very insidious ailment, if you do not provide assistance in a timely manner, the tree can disappear. Ideal conditions for the development of scab: excessive moisture, prolonged rain and cold. A characteristic feature is spots on the foliage that grow rapidly. The fruit, too, becomes dark, multi-stained, hard, cracked and unusable.
Affected shoots should be removed and the plant should be sprayed with Fundazol. For prevention purposes, it is recommended to treat the tree with the "Skor" preparation in early spring.
Fruit rot. Small brown spots on the fruit eventually merge into one continuous brown spot. Affected fruits infect each other with an infection, since they do not crumble, but continue to hold tightly to the stalks. Fruit affected by fruit rot are unfit for consumption.
To avoid infection with fruit rot, try to remove all fruits from the tree in time before hibernation, do not leave rotten fruits on the branches, and regularly dig the trunk circle.
Rust. If the foliage begins to become covered with bright yellow spots and crumble prematurely, then your plant is attacking a pathogenic microscopic fungus. This ailment has a bad effect on the immunity of the plant, significantly weakens the defenses of the plant.
There are no special remedies for rust treatment. Suitable preparations of a wide spectrum of action, the same ones that are used to combat scab.
Inspect your garden regularly for any unpleasant changes, and take action immediately. To prevent undesirable consequences, carry out preventive spraying.
Pear in winter. The main course for a pear in winter is high-quality insulation of the roots of the tree and regular inspection for the presence of pests. Be especially attentive to young boles, it is advisable to cover them with straw or sunflower leaves, you can cover them with foil. The pear is not as hardy as, for example, the apple tree.
The usefulness of pear fruits. Pear contains a large amount of vitamins: A, B1, B2, E, P, C, as well as carotene, iron, manganese, iodine, calcium.
Delicious and juicy fruits are shown to people who suffer from kidney disease and inflammation of the urinary tract and digestive disorders. They promote the elimination of excess fluid from the body. Freshly squeezed juice from pears, decoctions or baked fruits remove toxins from the body, promote blood formation and strengthen the immune system.
PHOTO OF PEAR