Lilac (Syrínga) - woody shrub belongs to the Olive family. The homeland of the plant is Asia and the South-Eastern side of Europe. Found in the wild in the mountainous regions of Eurasia. About 36 species and 200 varieties of representatives of this genus are known.
With the arrival of spring, each species smells fragrant with beautiful flowers, so lilacs are very often used for landscaping gardens, squares and park areas.
The bush consists of several trunks, grows up to 8 meters, lends itself well to pruning and shaping. Differs in winter hardiness and drought resistance.
Types of lilacs:
Common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) - growth from 2 to 8 meters. The leaves have a beautiful juicy appearance, are distinguished by early greening. It blooms with lilac, white or pink scented flowers. Foliage does not change color before falling off.
Persian lilac (Syringa persica L.) - medium-sized low shrub, about 3 meters. Differs in dense lilac bloom. Small flowers, collected in dense inflorescences, exude a pleasant, fresh aroma.
Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea) - adapts well to any conditions, it is not afraid of drought, cold and waterlogging. Grows up to 5 meters. It blooms later than other species, with small purple flowers with a subtle sweetish scent.
Lilacs for growing in Ukraine - popular varieties:
Hyacinth Lilac (Maiden's Blush) is a deciduous, fast-growing shrub with shiny green, heart-shaped leaves. The crown is wide-spread, blooms early, pink flowers with a pronounced pleasant aroma. Light-requiring, winter-hardy, prefers moderately moist soil.
Chinese lilac (Saugeana) - is distinguished by its rapid growth, it grows up to 25 cm per year. The branches are arcuate, curved under the weight of abundant flowering. Leaves with pointed edges, flowers are large, lilac color with a reddish tint.
Common lilac (Congo) - a shrub stands out for its glossy heart-shaped leaves and purple-lilac flowers, which stand out in contrast against the green crown. Flowers have a strongly pronounced tart, sweet aroma. Loves fertile, slightly acidic soils.
Selection and purchase of seedlings. The seedlings should be about 30 cm long with a well-branched root system and have a healthy appearance. Choose lilac seedlings with a closed root system, they take root better and do not require additional maintenance.
The use of lilac in landscape design. Due to the dense crown, the shrub is used to mask shelter from prying eyes, by building green screens and walls. To decorate landscape design, lilac looks good in group plantings. Ornamental deciduous shrubs with bright foliage of a non-green color, such as barberry or large perennials: peonies, phlox, are suitable as partners.
The indisputable advantage of lilacs is endurance and unpretentiousness, so it can perfectly replace exotic varieties of plants that are more demanding in care and terrain.
During the flowering of the shrub in the garden, a unique romantic atmosphere is created, if you plant lilacs around the bench in a semicircle, you get a paradise for relaxation. You can plant lush shrubs near the reservoir, reflecting in the mirror-like surface of the water will create a fabulous mystery effect and visually the planting will seem more dense.
Location and landing. The best option is a plot with a sufficient amount of light and protection from the wind; a small southwest slope is best suited for the successful growth of lilacs. Swampy areas are not suitable for lilacs, stagnant water provokes the death of roots. The soil is recommended to be drained, loose, well rotted, it can be light or medium loam, sandy loam, as well as black soil, well filled with organic and mineral fertilizers.
Planting time is late August or early September. Choose a cloudy day or wait until the evening begins. The pit is prepared with steep walls, the size depends on the fertility of the soil, in medium-fertile areas: 50x50x50 cm, and in poor areas: 100x100x100 cm.
During planting, a prepared, well-mixed substrate is added to the prepared hole:
Post-planting work. Having installed the plant in the center of the pit, carefully distributing the roots, it remains to cover it with a substrate and compact it well. Then it is abundantly watered and mulched with peat or rotted leaves.
A hardy, flowering ornamental shrub that is easy to grow. The main thing is to choose the right place for planting lilacs and do not forget to cut the branches, then it will look elegant and every year please with abundant flowering and rich aroma.
Watering. Lilac grows well and develops with sufficient soil moisture. It is especially important to water the shrub abundantly during the flowering period, but try not to overflow. Beginning in mid-July, watering should be stopped so as not to cause premature awakening of the buds of the next year.
Loosening, mulching. The trunks should be cleared of weeds; it should be loosened 3-4 times during the spring-summer period, after rain or preliminary watering.
In the fall, soil is dug to a depth of 10-12 cm, near the root collar 5-7 cm. The earth should not be leveled on the eve of winter.
Top dressing. Fertilizers are applied for 2-3 years, until this time the plant has enough feeding, which was carried out during planting. Organic fertilizers: manure, compost slurry, chicken droppings and mineral fertilizers: phosphorus and potassium are applied in August, and when it snows, ammonium nitrate is added. Repeat feeding every two years.
Trimming and shaping. In the early years, lilacs give a weak increase, so they begin to cut off, starting from the third year after planting. In early spring, identify 6-10 strong shoots that are well spaced apart to give the plant a spreading shape. The selected branches will serve as skeletal branches, the rest must be cut off.
Pruning should be done after the buds have started to grow. Shoots growing inside the bush are completely cut out. Sanitary pruning is carried out regardless of the season. Lilac branches cannot be broken, this leads to lacerated wounds on the plant, which can lead to negative consequences. You can rejuvenate old shrubs by cutting out 2 old branches every spring.
Flowering and fruiting. After the lilac has faded, it is important to remove the flower brushes, otherwise the next year the flowering will be weak or not at all. If lilacs are cut annually and in a timely manner, there will be no problems with the beautiful, lush decoration of your garden.
Reproduction and grafting. There are several ways of propagation of lilacs: cuttings, layering, grafting. The most convenient and frequently used method for propagating lilacs is by layering. To do this, build horizontal, small furrows near the bush, bend the branches to the ground and fasten them. Layers will grow from the branches of the shoot.
Diseases and pests. Lilacs are affected by bacterial rot, late blight of the kidneys; of the pests, the most dangerous are the lilac speckled moth, lilac hawk moth, and lilac moth.
Irrigation with Bordeaux liquid helps to cope with late blight of the kidneys. If you notice signs of bacterial rot, spray the shoots of the bush with copper chloride, repeat after ten days. To get rid of the lilac moth will help the treatment with a 0.2% solution of fosalon, from the lilac hawk moth with 0.1% phthalophos. In case of damage with speckled moth, treatment with 0.3% chlorophos is applied.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, purchase only planting and grafting material, which is accompanied by a corresponding certificate. Remove all diseased branches and weeds in a timely manner.
Lilacs in winter. Since Syringa is frost-resistant, there is no need to further protect it during cold weather. Only young seedlings need shelter; for this, the trunks are covered with peat and dry leaves, with a layer of 8-10 cm.
The usefulness of lilac. Both the leaves and flowers of lilacs are used to treat the following diseases:
Lilac infusions and decoctions are also used as an antipyretic, analgesic and anticonvulsant.
Before using, a doctor's consultation is required, since the plant has a number of contraindications.
PHOTO OF LILAC