Oncidium (lat. Oncidium) is an epiphytic orchid of the Orchid family, includes about 750 species. His homeland: South and Central America, Antilles.
In nature, orchids are found in yellow, orange, brown and white, sometimes red. In shape, Oncidium flowers resemble dancing pupae in long skirts, ranging in size from 1-2 cm to 8-10 cm.
When buying oncidium, pay attention to the number of pseudobulbs, it is better that there are at least three, the leaves should be clean, without spots, the roots should be light. The colors of this orchid are mainly in yellow-brown tones, although there are hybrids of red or pink colors.
Orchid Oncidium - popular varieties:
Oncidium Sweet Sugar (Onc. Aloha Iwanaga x Onc. Varicosum) is the most common yellow hybrid. Many flowers, about 3 cm in diameter, are located on a branched peduncle. This variety is most suitable for growing in an apartment.
Oncidium Twinkle (Onc. Cheirophorum x Onc. Ornithorhynchum) is a compact, short orchid with small yellow, white or red flowers. Has a pleasant cinnamon aroma.
Oncidium Sharry Baby (Onc. Jamie Sutton x Onc. Honolulu) - a variety of large orchids with many small flowers of red, brown color. It smells good of chocolate and honey.
You can buy the Oncidium orchid in our store
This orchid, like cambria, is quite unpretentious in care. Compared to phalaenopsis, oncidium is more dependent on daily temperature changes and is more photophilous. Oncidium can bloom at any time of the year, and with good care, even twice a year. The flowers have a pleasant aroma.
Lighting. Oncidium is a light-loving orchid, although it can also grow on north-facing windows. But for lush flowering, she just needs an abundance of sunlight. Therefore, the best place would be south or west windows.
You can determine how much light an orchid receives by examining its leaves: yellowness and spots on them indicate an excess of light, leaves of a rich dark green color indicate a lack. But the leaves are light green in color, indicate that the oncidium receives the optimal amount of light.
Important: The Oncidium orchid may not bloom if it does not receive enough light.
Good lighting is especially necessary during the period of flower bud growth and pseudobulb formation. It is recommended at this time (usually - in autumn-winter) to supplement the orchid with a phytolamp.
Temperature. According to the temperature regime of the content, hybrid oncidiums are conventionally divided into three groups:
Hybrid oncidiums that are commercially available grow well in the 15 to 25 ° C range. It is desirable that the night temperature is 3-4 ° C lower than the daytime.
Air humidity. If the orchid is kept in a room with a temperature below 16-18 ° C, it is not recommended to spray it in order to avoid the development of a fungal disease.
In general, oncidium is adapted to room conditions and does not need additional moisture. An exception is too dry air during the heating season or at high temperatures. Ventilation of the plant is recommended in high humidity.
Watering. The main rule is that the substrate must dry completely between waterings so that the roots can breathe. In hot sunny weather, you can water once a week, in cold rainy weather - once every 2-3 weeks. The watering method is to immerse the pot by 1/3 in settled warm (preferably filtered) water for 20-30 minutes.
Important: Oncidium hybrids do not tolerate the salinity of the substrate, so if possible, do not use hard water.
The flowering of oncidium largely depends on watering during the period of laying the flower bud. From the moment the young sprout emerges from the bulb and until it thickens in the lower part (a new pseudobulb is formed), watering must be stopped. If a peduncle starts to flow from the new bulb in a month, you can return to the previous watering frequency.
Top dressing. It has no special meaning for this orchid. You can feed every second watering with a weak fertilizer solution (1/10 of the recommended dose) "For Orchids" and only during the period of vegetative growth. During flowering and when the orchid is resting, stop feeding.
Transfer. The main thing is as little as possible. By all accounts, oncidiums do not like frequent transplants. It is necessary to place it in a new substrate when the old one is caked or heavily salted. Or when the roots in an old pot become cramped - about once every 3 years.
A transplant pot can be opaque, wide and shallow. Put a little expanded clay on the bottom, then large pieces of bark, on them the roots of the plant, and evenly cover them with smaller bark. It is not necessary to cover pseudobulbs with a substrate, let them remain on the surface.
Trimming and shaping. Like other orchids, oncidium does not need to be formed.
Bloom. Oncidiums bloom for about 4-5 weeks every 8-12 months. Flowering can occur at any time of the year. Flowers appear on young peduncles, which, in turn, grow from new pseudobulbs.
Reproduction. The most common way is by dividing the bush in early spring. However, flowering in delenoks can be delayed for a couple of years.
It is possible to divide oncidium when it grows at least 8 pseudobulbs, so that every day there are at least 3-4 bulbs (bulbs). After removing the plant from the pot, clean the roots from the substrate. With a sharp knife, the rhizome is divided between the bulbs, the cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal. Delenki are seated in separate pots and do not water for 2 weeks.
Diseases and pests. Of insects, it is most often affected by mealybugs, scale insects, mites. Of the diseases, bacterial and fungal rot are most likely.
If insects are found, they should be removed with a swab dipped in alcohol (vodka) or soapy water, after which the orchid should be treated with aktar or actellik. You can also use the folk method: infusion of onions or garlic. To do this, 1 teaspoon of finely chopped onion (or 0.5 tablespoon of garlic) is infused in a glass of water for 1 day. An orchid is treated with this infusion.
If the oncidium is often waterlogged or placed in a cold draft, it can develop root rot. In this case, the roots and the lower part of the orchid are affected. With bacterial rot, brown spots appear on the leaves.
Remove damaged areas of the plant, provide it with good ventilation and place it in a warmer place. You also need to treat with fungicides (foundation, tetracycline), sprinkle and shed.
Oncidium in winter. Hybrids that do not have pseudobulbs have a more pronounced dormant period, in contrast to species with bulbs. It usually begins in the fall, after the young shoots are fully ripe.
During this period, it is necessary to reduce watering (up to 1 time in 2-3 weeks), stop feeding and place the plant in a cooler place.