Cymbidium (Latin Cymbidium) is a genus of evergreen epiphytic plants of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). Found naturally in Northern Australia and subtropical Asia.
At present, about 60 species have been discovered that grow in different climatic zones. Flowers of a wide variety of shades, up to 12 cm in diameter, some natural species have a pleasant aroma. They stay on the peduncle for about 8-10 weeks.
In culture, both dwarf species (20-30 cm high), which are valued precisely for their aroma, and large ones, up to 1 meter in height, with large bright flowers up to 10 cm in diameter, are widespread. In the period from the 17th to the 19th century, cymbidiums were quite common among the Japanese nobility.
Hybrid cymbidiums are available at flower shops. The first of these was bred in 1889 by crossing Cymbidium eburneum and Cymbidium lowianum and named Cymbidium Eburneo-lowianum.
Other names for cymbidium: Cymb, cymb, cymbic, king of fragrances.
Cymbidium - types:
Dwarf cymbidium (Cymbidium pumilum) - originally from China and Japan, peduncle height - 12-15 cm, leaves - up to 20 cm.It blooms from December to March with large flowers up to 8-10 cm in diameter. Duration of flowering is 3-4 weeks.
Cymbidium "ivory" (Cymbidium eburneum) - the very name of this epiphytic orchid speaks of the color of its flowers. Distributed in Burma, the height of the peduncle is about 30 cm, has a pleasant aroma. It blooms in spring with large white flowers.
Cymbidium low (Cymbidium lowianmn) - homeland: India and Burma. Differs in many flowers (from 15 to 35) on the peduncle, which last up to 2-3 months, blooms from February to June. The height of the leaves is 60-85 cm.
Cymbidiumaloifolium (Cymbidiumaloifolium) - also grows in Burma and India, as well as in China. It blooms from January to March with small (4-5 cm) flowers, the duration of flowering is about a month. This miniature cymbidium reaches a height of only 30-35 cm.
Sword cymbidium (Cymbidium ensifolium) - a distinctive feature of this orchid - a strong pleasant aroma. Blooms from late winter to April, on a peduncle from 3 to 8 flowers, about 4 cm in diameter.
Cymbidium insigne - Unlike most cymbidiums, this orchid is terrestrial. Grows in Vietnam, Thailand, China. Blooms from late winter to early summer, flowering duration is 2-3 weeks. Her flowers are large, in inflorescences, collected in 10-12 pieces, 7-9 cm in diameter.
There are mainly hybrid cymbidiums on sale. Both miniature orchids, 30-40 cm high, and one and a half meter beauties are sold.
The most common are 60-90 cm high, of the most varied colors. Popular colors: pink, mustard yellow, light green, milky white, burgundy.
You can buy Cymbidium orchid in our store
Cymbidium does not require special conditions of detention. However, this orchid is very light-requiring and needs coolness in the winter. The supply of fresh air is also important, and for the beginning of flowering - the difference between day and night temperatures.
Lighting. Cymbidium is one of the most light-loving orchids. From autumn to spring, it is better to keep the flower pot near the south window, in the summer to move to the east or west, or create protection from direct sunlight. With a lack of light, the leaves can stretch and fall, and the buds dry out.
For the cymbidium, fresh air is as important as light. It is recommended to take the plant out to an open balcony, veranda or garden in warm weather. However, it must be remembered that this orchid does not like cold drafts as well as heat.
Temperature. From spring to autumn, the hybrid cymbidium tolerates temperatures up to 30 ° C well, but only if kept outdoors. When the night temperature reaches + 15 ° C, it is best to take the plant out to the balcony or garden. Daily temperature drops and an abundance of air will contribute to the laying of flower buds and will have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the flower.
In winter, the cymbus simply needs coolness. If possible, take the orchid to a cool room, glassed-in balcony or terrace. The ideal temperature for keeping in winter is 10-15 ° C heat.
Air humidity. It does not play a significant role, and in cloudy or cold weather, high humidity will be harmful - the plant can get sick. In summer, at high temperatures, it is better not to spray the cymbus, but to provide it with fresh air.
Watering. Do not flood the plant - the main rule when watering cymbidiums. In different periods, he needs a different amount of moisture, but it is better to dry the cymbus a little than to pour. Between waterings, the substrate should be completely dry, and in winter, watering should be minimized.
In summer, on hot days and during the period of active growth, watering is increased, but not much. But starting in autumn, watering is reduced to stimulate flowering.
Top dressing. From early spring to late summer, i.e. during the period of active growth. The frequency of feeding depends on the substrate the orchid is in. If it is a simple bark, then more often, if sod land (or other nutrients) is added to the substrate, then less often.
During dormancy, as well as during flowering - feeding should be excluded. For feeding, use the usual fertilizer for orchids, preferably in a half dose.
Transfer. Cymbidium has long, strong roots and large leaves, so tall, heavy ceramic pots are best for replanting. The pot should not be too big, otherwise flowering problems may occur. The time and frequency of transplantation is in the spring, after flowering, once every 3-4 years. Repotting too often is not recommended.
For transplanting, you can use a commercially available substrate for cymbidium and terrestrial orchids. To increase the nutritional value and improve the structure by 3/4 of such a substrate, it is advisable to add 1/4 of a mixture of sod land, sand, vermiculite and sphagnum moss.
Be sure to put a drainage from expanded clay on the bottom of the pot with a layer of 2-4 cm. During transplantation, you need to remove old, empty, unnecessary roots. Pour a little substrate on the drainage, place the roots of the cymbus and, pouring evenly, fill the entire pot. Pseudobulbs and a small part of the roots should not be completely covered with soil and moss, so as not to provoke the development of rot.
Trimming and shaping. Cymbidium does not need pruning. Only dry leaves, as well as faded peduncles are removed.
Bloom. Cymbidium orchids need a daily temperature difference of 8-10 ° C for flowering. To do this, the plant is taken out to the garden, open terrace, balcony or loggia in spring, when the night temperature does not drop below 7-10 ° C and is kept there until the onset of the autumn cold.
At the beginning of summer, flower stalks begin to form in the cymbidium and by the beginning of autumn they reach full growth. It is recommended to keep the orchid outdoors during this period (especially at night) until the night temperature drops to 7-10 ° C warm. Closer to winter, flowering begins and lasts 1-2 months.
Reproduction. This is best done in the spring. The most common way Cymbidium reproduces is by dividing the bush. At least 3 pseudobulbs are left on each section.
Delenki are seated in separate pots and watered very moderately. Breeding pots should only slightly exceed the orchid root system in volume.
Diseases and pests. Cymbidium can be damaged by spider mites, scale insects and aphids. In this case, the damaged parts of the plant are deformed, the flowers fall off, and the buds may not bloom. If found, the pests are removed with a cotton swab dipped in soapy water, and in case of severe damage, they are treated with actellik.
Also, flowers can be affected by gray rot (dark spots appear on the petals), and leaves by brown rot (watery spots). It is necessary to remove the affected parts of the plant, reduce watering and increase the temperature.
Cymbidium in winter. Keep in a bright and cool place with fresh air. Watering is reduced to a minimum, feeding is stopped completely. The temperature of the content during this period should not exceed 10-15 ° C heat.
PHOTO OF THE CYMBIDIUM