Tulip (lat. Túlipa) is a perennial herbaceous bulbous plant of the Liliaceae family. Depending on the type and variety, the height of tulips ranges from 10-20 cm to 70-100 cm. The name of the plant comes from the Persian "toliban" (turban) due to the similarity of the flower with a turban (oriental headdress).
Tulip is a perennial, because the mother bulb lives for 2.5 years. During this period, a daughter bulb and babies (small bulbs) are formed. The stem with roots, leaves and flowers is annual, i.e. live one vegetation.
In the 16th century, wild tulips were brought to Turkey and subsequently cultivated. Currently, wild tulips are common in Central and Eastern Asia, Japan, Southern Europe, North Africa.
Florists decorate the paths with tulips to admire flowers of an unusual shape: similar to peonies (terry late), with fringed petals (fringed), with gracefully curved petals (lily-colored), with petals like wings (parrot). Against the background of a lawn or trees, tulips with a simple flower shape look great in groups, and undersized ones in rock gardens or in containers.
Tulips for growing in Ukraine are popular varieties. Among the variety of varieties, the following can be distinguished:
Grand Perfection (Tulip Grand Perfection) - group 2, class 3, Triumph tulips. Medium flowering, medium-sized variety, height 40-50 cm. Flowers are goblet-shaped, yellow petals with red stripes. Flowering duration is 9-12 days.
Blue Heron (Tulip Blue Heron) - 3 group, 7 class, fringed tulips. Medium late, medium-tall variety, height 60-70 cm. A violet-blue flower with a lilac needle-like fringe. The flowers are large.
Maya (Tulip Maja) - 3 group, 7 class, fringed tulips. Late-flowering, tall variety, height 80-90 cm. The flowers are very large, elongated, light yellow in color with a white-cream needle-like fringe.
Blue Diamond (Tulip Blue Diamond) - 3 group, 11 class, double late tulips. Late-flowering, medium-sized variety, height 40-45 cm. The flowers are peony-shaped, when opened, the diameter reaches 9 cm. The color is purple-pink with veins. The flowering period is 10-12 days.
Crown (Tulip Corona) - 4th group, 12th grade, Kaufman tulips. Early flowering, low-growing variety, height 20-25 cm. Flowers are goblet, diameter of glass 3-4 cm, height 6-7 cm, in half-spread they look like a crown. The color of the petals is red with yellow edges. The flowering period is 12-19 days.
Orange Boy (Tulip Orange Boy) - 4th group, 12th grade, Kaufman tulips. Early flowering, undersized variety, height 15-20 cm. The flowers are star-shaped, the color of the petals is pink-orange. Flowering duration is 8-15 days.
Selection and purchase of tulip bulbs. Before buying, you also need to read which variety is needed, the timing of its flowering, it is suitable for forcing for a bouquet or for a rock garden, and so on.
It is better to choose the time of buying tulip bulbs just before planting, i.e. at the end of September. If the onions were purchased earlier, then they should be stored in a cool, dry, ventilated place before planting so that they do not suffocate.
When choosing a bulb, you should pay attention to its size, because the larger the bulb, the larger the tulip will be. It is advisable to choose extra class bulbs (on the label - 12+), with a diameter of more than 4 cm and a maximum circumference of 12 cm.Also good bulbs of the 1st analysis (on the label - 12/11), their diameter is 3.5-4 cm, circumferential length - 11-12 cm. Bulbs of the 2nd analysis (11/10) have a diameter of 3-3.5 cm, of the 3rd analysis - a diameter of 2.5-3 cm.The children have a diameter of less than 2.5 cm
It is also imperative to inspect the bulb for signs of disease and traces of rot, spots, depressed dry brown pits, mold. The bottom should also look healthy. It is desirable that scales remain on the bulb.
Location and landing. When planting tulips, important factors need to be considered, such as composition, location, planting time, soil preparation and improvement, planting methods and others.
Tulips begin to bloom at the end of April and fade rather quickly, so it is advisable to replace them in the aisles with later flowering plants. When planted in groups, tulips of the same variety look more beautiful, multi-colored plantings are beautiful when the colors in them are harmoniously matched. For simultaneous flowering, you need to select bulbs of the same size. The planting should not be thickened; it is recommended to plant no more than 50-60 plants per 1 square meter.
The landing site should be protected from the wind and well lit. If there is insufficient light, the stems can stretch and bend and the bulbs may not accumulate enough nutrients. The area must be sufficiently drained so that the bulbs do not rot. For the same reason, lowland and flooded areas are not suitable.
For successful rooting, the soil temperature must drop to 7-10 ° C, but not below 3 ° C. Tulips are planted from late September to late October, depending on the climatic conditions of the region. The bulb should form a root system before the onset of frost, usually 30-40 days for its development.
2-3 weeks before planting, the site is plowed or dug up to a depth of 1.5-2 shovel bayonets. It is not recommended to dig up later, because it takes time for the earth to settle, otherwise the growing roots of tulips may be injured.
The physical properties of the soil are of particular importance; it must be sufficiently moisture-absorbing, loose and breathable. The most favorable soils for cultivation are considered to be humus-rich sandy loam and loamy soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (PH 6.8-7.5). The size of the fertile layer should be at least 30 cm. Heavy clay soils are improved by the introduction of coarse river sand, peat, humus. Too light sandy ones - by adding humus, compost, sod land.
Important: tulips do not tolerate acidic soils, so peat or other acidic substrate must be neutralized with lime or chalk.
Immediately before planting, tulip bulbs are examined for diseases. The unhealthy are discarded, and the healthy ones are etched in a fungicide solution or 0.5% potassium permanganate solution (bright pink potassium permanganate) for 30 minutes.
On ridges 1-1.5 meters wide, longitudinal grooves are made, the bulbs are lightly pressed into the bottom of the furrow and sprinkled with earth. It is recommended to maintain the distance between the bulbs in the furrow about 10 cm, between the furrows - about 20 cm. As noted earlier, you should not plant more than 50-60 tulips per 1 sq. meter. Planting depth depends on bulb size and soil characteristics. On heavy soils, the layer of soil above the bulb is 2 heights, on light soils - 3 heights. Usually, children deepen at least 8 cm, large ones - no more than 20 cm.
Watering. The root system of a tulip is designed so that it can absorb moisture only in the immediate vicinity of the plant. Therefore, special attention is paid to timely watering. It is necessary to water abundantly, for 1 square meter from 20 to 40 liters of water, but not often, so that there is no stagnation of moisture. Watering is carried out throughout the growing season.
In sunny weather, water should be avoided on leaves and flowers in order not to cause burns. After flowering, tulips are watered for another two weeks to form a strong bulb. In the future, watering is reduced.
Weeding, loosening, mulching. You also need to pay attention to timely weeding. Weeds need to be removed not only near the plants, but also in the aisles.
During weeding, loosening of the soil is carried out, which is necessary to retain moisture and aerate the soil. The first loosening is best done in early spring, when the first sprouts of tulips appear, the subsequent ones after watering or rain, so that a crust does not form on the surface. Heavier soils require more frequent loosening. Mulching the soil near tulips begins in late autumn, after freezing, with a layer of peat 5-7 cm.
Top dressing. Tulips respond very well to feeding with organic and mineral fertilizers.
It is widely believed among flower growers that for good growth, flowering and ripening of the bulbs, it is necessary to carry out three mineral dressings:
It is better to dissolve fertilizers in water, but you can also sprinkle them dry, the main thing is to immediately spill it with plenty of water so that the fertilizers get to the roots of tulips. If the plants are wet, it is better not to carry out dry dressing so that fertilizers do not leave burns on the leaves.
Trimming and shaping. After flowering, you need to cut the stem to a height of 5 cm. The leaves are not cut, they are necessary for the bulb to gain strength for the next flowering. When the leaves turn yellow, the bulbs are dug up, although some growers leave them in the ground.
Blooming tulips. The growth and development of tulips lasts about 3 months - from early April to late June. Flowering occurs on average 3-4 weeks after the beginning of the growing season (emergence of shoots). The duration of flowering depends on the variety and averages 15-30 days.
Reproduction. Tulips can be propagated in two ways: seed and vegetative. Seed propagation is used in breeding work, and vegetative propagation (by bulbs) is used by flower growers in their own farms.
The mother's bulb lives for 2.5 years. During this time, the replacement (daughter) bulb and baby bulbs ripen. The bulbs are harvested around the first half of July, when the tulip leaves turn yellow. For reproduction, nests are suitable in which the daughter (replacement) bulb has become larger than the mother. Store the bulbs in dark, well-ventilated areas.
Diseases and pests. Tulips are most susceptible to fungal diseases such as gray rot, sclerocial rot, blue mold, as well as a viral disease - variegation.
In case of a disease with gray rot on peduncles, buds, a gray bloom appears, as well as yellow spots, first at the edge of the leaf, and then over the entire surface. The bulbs become moldy and then rot. The disease is especially evident in cool, rainy springs. When affected by sclerocial rot, whitish spots appear on the bulbs, which turn black over time. In case of severe damage, the bulbs die and do not germinate. Blue mold can develop on bulbs stored in poorly ventilated and damp areas or on damaged, scaleless bulbs.
Prevention: storage of bulbs in dry, ventilated areas, dressing before planting, rejection of diseased and damaged bulbs.
Control measures: removal of diseased plants from plantings, treatment with fungicides during the growing season and flowering.
Variegation is a viral disease that is manifested by a change on the petals of the usual pattern or color, the appearance of stripes that are not inherent in this variety. Usually, plants infected with the virus bloom later than the whole mass of tulips of the same variety and analysis. When cutting flowers, you need to disinfect the knife in a strong solution of potassium permanganate after each plant or break off the peduncles of tulips suspected of the disease. Virus-infected plants must be removed from the site.
Wintering tulips. Digging and storing bulbs. There are two ways to winter tulips: in the ground and digging out the bulbs. It is preferable to dig up the bulbs annually, if they are left in the soil, then the next year they will give fewer children, and the flowers themselves will become smaller.
The bulbs are dug when the leaves of the early varieties turn yellow completely, and the later ones begin to turn yellow. At this time, the scales of the replacement (daughter) bulb turn light brown. From 2 to 4 babies are formed in the nest. The dug out bulbs are dried at a temperature of about 25 ° C for 7-10 days, then they are cleaned of old scales, roots, earth and sorted according to analysis (bulb diameter). Until the end of summer, the temperature in the room should be in the range of 20-22 ° С and the air humidity 70-80%, later and before planting - about 15 ° С with the air humidity 60-70%.
The whimsical varieties from Holland planted in autumn must be mulched with peat or compost in a layer of 5-10 cm. Spruce branches can be spread out to trap snow on plantings.
Interesting facts: Tulips appeared in Holland in the 16th century. At this time, they become the object of the passion of the whole people. Many businessmen left their business and were engaged in tulip cultivation. Tulip mania stopped only when new flower cultures began to come into fashion.
Tulips were imported to Russia from abroad and until the end of the 19th century were grown in the estates of only wealthy people.
In accordance with the International Register of Names of Tulips, adopted in Holland in 1981, the modern Unified Classification System of Tulips includes 4 groups. The first three groups include certain varieties or classes by flowering time, the fourth contains tulips by origin. There are 15 classes of tulips in total.
Group 1 - Early flowering: flowering in late April - early May, within 15-30 days
1) Simple early (Tulipa single early): medium-sized (30-40 cm), flowering at the end of April, the shape of the flower is goblet, non-double, the colors are mainly yellow and red.
2) Terry early (Tulipa double early): undersized (20-25 cm), flowering at the end of April, double flowers, wide open.
Group 2 - Mid-flowering: flowering in early-mid May, within 15-30 days
3) Triumph (Tulipa triumph): from crossing Simple early with Darwin, flowering in late April - early May, high-medium-sized (40-70 cm), large goblet flowers. The most numerous and popular class of tulips.
4) Darwin hybrids (Tulipa Darwin Hybrid): from crossing Darwin's or Cottage and Foster, flowering in early May, tall (60-70 cm), large goblet-shaped flowers, have the most intense red color.
Group 3 - Late flowering: flowering at the end of May, within 10-20 days
5) Simple late or Cottage (Tulipa single late): tall (60-70 cm), large goblet flowers, flowering in mid-May, the most varied color.
6) Lily flowers (Tulipa lilyflowering): medium-tall (50-70 cm), the shape of the flower is like a lily, not double, the petals are bent outward, flowering in the second half of May.
7) Fringed tulips (Tulipa crispa, Tulipa fringed): medium-tall (50-80 cm), flowering from mid-May, the flowers have a fringe like frost at the edges of the leaves, the shape of the flowers is goblet, non-double, the color is very diverse.
8) Green-flowered (Tulipa viridiflora): low-medium-sized (30-60 cm), flowering from mid-May, the middle of the petals is green, the flower shape is goblet, not double.
9) Tulips of Rembrandt (Tulipa Rembrandt): medium-sized (40-70 cm), flowering from the second half of May, combine different classes, the petals of which are variegated. The flowers are large, goblet-shaped, with spots and strokes on a white, red or yellow background.
10) Parrot (Tulipa parrot): medium-sized (40-65 cm), flowers are usually large, wide-open, the edges of the petals are strongly indented, flowering from the second half of May. It got its name from the shape of the petals that resemble disheveled bird feathers.
11) Terry late or Peony (Tulipa double late, Tulipa paeonyflowering): flowering in the second half of May, medium-tall (45-60 cm), flowers are mainly peony-shaped, densely double.
Group 4 - Species and botanical: flowering in mid-April - early May
12) Kaufman tulips (Tulipa kaufmanniana): dwarf, low-medium-sized (15-25 cm), flowering in April, cupped, ovoid or star-shaped flowers, varied color, often two-colored
13) Foster's tulips (Tulipa fosteriana): dwarf and medium-sized (20-50 cm), flowering at the end of April, flowers are usually goblet, elongated, bright, red and red-orange tones.
14) Greig's tulips (Tulipa greigii): dwarf, low-medium-sized (20-30 cm), flowering from the end of April, flowers are elongated-triangular, non-double. The color of the flowers is predominantly red, orange or bicolor.
15) Botanical tulips (Tulipa botanical): a composite class that unites all species of tulips ever introduced, their varieties and varieties that have a habit of wild tulips. Low-growing (15-30 cm), flowering in late April - early May, star-shaped flower shape, non-double.
PHOTO OF TULIPS