First of all, you need to provide access to the bonsai fresh air and sunlight.
Light plays an exceptional role in the normal growth of the plant.
In the warmer months, it is best to keep plants either in the garden, or on the balcony (loggia), or on the windowsill of an open window.
When creating optimal lighting, the plants' demand for light is taken into account. Sometimes, at home, you can meet these requirements by choosing the right place for the bonsai. Some plants like constant bright lighting, while others need partial shade. The illumination of a place strongly depends on the orientation of the windows: north - south, east - west.
Bonsai is generally light-requiring
The bonsai should be in a location that provides access to sunlight for at least three to four hours a day. A sign that the plant lacks light in the summer are the leaves directed towards the light source and more developed shoots on this side. Therefore, the plant must be turned 180 ° after 2–4 weeks.
In winter, with low light intensity and short days due to high temperatures, indoor bonsai can develop thin, pale shoots. In this case, you need to put the plant in a brighter and cooler place or make additional artificial lighting. In winter, window curtains should be pulled up during the day.
Different types of bonsai require different lighting conditions, which should be clarified in a specific plant article.
When choosing a place for keeping bonsai, pay attention to the following lighting parameters:
As for the angle of incidence of the sun's rays, the growth of the plant is more intense if it stands on the left side on the east window or on the right side on the west. The lack of light must be compensated for with artificial lighting devices. It is not recommended to use artificial light all year round, which can have an adverse effect on the plant.
In winter, as well as on cloudy days from October to March, additional lighting is a must. For these purposes, fluorescent fluorescent lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps and halogen gas-metal lamps are used.
It is better to refuse incandescent lamps, since the light emitted by them is far from daylight, and heat rays have a detrimental effect on the plant. In addition, the efficiency of incandescent lamps is not high enough.
The lack of natural light is made up for with artificial light.
Most preferred are fluorescent fluorescent lamps, which are highly efficient and easy to use. Lamps are installed horizontally. When installing additional lighting lamps, the following rules must be borne in mind. The closer the lamp is installed, the more efficiently it is used, but one should not forget about heat radiation - the lamp should be installed at a distance of 25-50 cm from the bonsai.
The dynamics of air temperature throughout the year when plants are kept in an apartment must correspond to the climate conditions of their homeland. Plants of the middle zone and temperate climate stay in the fresh air (in the conditions of their native habitat) throughout the warm season, it falls just on the period of their active vegetation.
The dormant period, which coincides with the natural winter, bonsai is carried out either in the fresh air (covered if necessary), or on a glazed loggia. Hardy species can tolerate light frosts.
Subtropical plant species (myrtle, pomegranate, olive, boxwood, rosemary, etc.) can be kept outdoors in summer (on a balcony, an open window, in a garden cottage), and in winter the air temperature should not be higher than 15 ° C (from 5 up to 15 ° C). It is almost impossible to find a place in an apartment with such temperature parameters in winter.
Therefore, for normal wintering, bonsai are equipped with a small space isolated from the room with a transparent film or glass with a temperature lowered by removing the inner glass of the frame. Or they make a cool greenhouse on the balcony with additional heating and temperature control. With a well-equipped balcony, a bonsai lover may be able to maintain any tree species.
Bonsai loves fresh air
Tropical species are kept at temperatures between 18 and 25 ° C all year round. In winter, it is better to keep tropical plants at a low (not higher than 18 ° C) temperature, otherwise pale thin shoots may appear, due to which the plant suffers more from lack of light. The higher the temperature of the content, the more light it needs. In addition, as the temperature rises, the plant's need for water, spraying and nutrients also increases. The lower the temperature, the more moderate the watering and feeding of the plant should be.
Under natural conditions, wind and atmospheric influences contribute to the development of a powerful crown in trees, which, on the one hand, protects against excessive moisture evaporation, and on the other hand, provides protection against pests.
Since the air in the rooms hardly moves, too delicate leaves are formed on the tree, which are in danger of becoming easy prey for pests. With this in mind, it is recommended to put indoor bonsai for a while on a balcony, veranda or garden in the summer.
Used material from the book M. P. Zgurskaya "Bonsai"