Walnut (lat. Júglans régia) - a large fruit tree comes from the Walnut family, genus - Walnut. It was brought to Ukraine from Moldova, in the wild it is most often found in the south of Kyrgyzstan, in northern China, India, Greece, Asia Minor. Iran is considered to be the homeland of the nut.
The tree can grow up to 25 meters in height, in home gardening it is much lower - up to 5-7 meters, has a thick trunk, 5-7 meters in diameter, covered with gray bark and a lush dense crown. Leaves consist of several pairs of elongated, ovoid leaves.
It blooms with small, dioecious flowers of a pale green color. Both male and female flowers form on the tree. Pollination takes place with the help of the wind, in May.
The fruit is a single-seeded drupe covered with a leathery-fibrous pericarp and a strong spherical bone with incomplete septa. When the fruit reaches its maturity, the pericarp cracks, freeing the stone from the woody shell. The shell contains an edible kernel. The fruits ripen in August-October. The size, shape and taste of the fruit differ markedly depending on the variety.
Other names: Walnut, Voloshsky walnut, Royal walnut.
Walnuts for growing in Ukraine - popular varieties:
Early varieties: fruit ripening in late August - early September:
Medium varieties: fruit ripening September-October:
Mid-late varieties: fruit ripening mid-October:
Selection and purchase of seedlings. When choosing a walnut seedling, take into account the fact that first of all, it develops a root system and only then does the top grow. And this means that you need to buy seedlings with a strong root system and preferably without leaves. You should purchase from trusted suppliers, where you are guaranteed grafted plants that have passed a quality test for suitability.
Location and landing. It is recommended to plant the nut in spring, but autumn planting is also allowed. Not too picky about the soil, the main thing is to establish a good drainage layer. The planting site must be sunny, the walnut does not tolerate shade well. An excellent choice is an open sunny meadow.
The planting pit is best prepared in the fall, size 1x1x1 m.Mix fertile soil in equal parts with peat and humus, add fertilizers: 600-800 g of dolomite flour, 2-3 kg of superphosphate and potassium chloride - 700-800 g. and falling asleep in a hole left for the winter.
In the spring, before planting, you should inspect the seedling for damage, remove rotten and dried shoots. Then for several hours the roots are immersed in a clay mash, for its preparation they mix water with 3 parts of clay and 1 part of rotted manure. Next, the roots are carefully placed in a hole and covered with a 1: 1 mixture of earth and humus. The root collar remains just above ground level. Having tamped the soil, watered with 2 buckets of purified water. To maintain moisture, it is recommended to cover the trunk circle with peat.
Autumn planting differs from spring planting only in that the pit is not prepared in six months, but in two weeks.
For the crop to be high and stable, you need to properly care for the plant. This will not seem difficult to you if you follow some basic rules: provide access to sunlight, watering, fertilize in a timely manner, and prevent diseases.
Watering. The nut loves moisture, for good development and growth of the young plant, provide regular watering. In the warm season, two buckets of water are poured under the tree every two weeks. When the tree grows to 3 meters in height, watering is required only during drought periods.
Top dressing. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, it is important to apply nitrogen fertilizers, in the fall, on the eve of wintering, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. Top dressing should be done carefully, without loosening, so as not to harm the root system.
Trimming and shaping. The tree is distinguished by its ability to independently form a beautiful lush crown. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes necessary to correct the appearance of the plant, it is advisable to do this in mid-summer or in spring in April, before the start of sap flow. By removing too long, improperly growing, dry, diseased branches, you increase not only the growth of the tree, but also the quality and quantity of fruits. Use a garden pruner to keep your cuts straight and free from burrs.
Flowering and fruiting. Blooms at the same time as foliage blooms. Flowering pale green in the form of dangling earrings. They are replaced by fruits of an oval or spherical shape, covered with a thick peel, which cracks during ripening. Ripe fruits with a pleasant sweetish taste.
Reproduction and grafting. Reproduction is carried out by seed or grafting. In home gardening, the grafting method is most often practiced, it helps to preserve the original maternal properties. Two-year-old seedlings grown in a greenhouse are suitable for the stock. Grafting is carried out in March, the grafted seedlings are stored in a warm room at a temperature of about 22-24 degrees until the onset of stable warm weather. In mid-May, it can be planted in the ground.
Diseases and pests. Greece walnut is quite resistant to diseases and pests, but nevertheless, due to improper care, infections occur. Frequent diseases: bacteriosis, brown spot, fire blight, root cancer. Treatment with Bordeaux liquid will help to cope with bacteriosis. Brown spot most often progresses in wet weather, remove all affected leaves and shoots, treat with a special Vectra preparation (3 ml per 10 l of water). Parts of the plant infected with a bacterial burn are cut out and burned, then they are sprayed with preparations containing copper. In case of root cancer infection, the growths on the tree must be opened and treated with a 1% solution of caustic soda, then rinse the wounds with running water, pouring from a hose.
Pests affecting walnuts: walnut moth, aphid, walnut moth.
You can cope with walnut moth by treating the tree with Decamethrin. Aphids will disappear if you use Actellik or Biotlin. To protect the plant from the nut moth, you need to install pheromone traps, collect fallen nuts in a timely manner, and if you find the nests of these insects, immediately destroy them.
Walnut in winter. Mature trees tolerate winter well without special protection. Young plants should be wrapped in burlap, and the trunks should be mulched with manure, departing 15 cm from the trunk.
The usefulness of walnut fruits: the fruit contains beta-carotene, vitamins A, B, C, E, K, H, PP, as well as mineral and tannins. Eating walnuts lowers blood sugar levels, improves blood circulation, prevents the development of sclerosis in adulthood, and has a tonic and anti-inflammatory effect on the body.