Chinese hibiscus or Chinese rose (Latin Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) is an evergreen shrub from the species of the genus Hibiscus, the Malvaceae family - Malvaceae. Homeland - Southeast Asia (South China) and Polynesia, northern India.
Indoors it grows up to 1.5-2 m in height. The growth is about 15-30 cm per year. Grows up to 20 years or more.
It blooms almost all year round. The flowers reach 15 cm in diameter. The Chinese rose can be grown as a standard tree.
Purchase and selection of hibiscus. When choosing a plant, pay attention to the number of buds and their presence on the bottom of the plant. The leaves should be shiny and fresh.
Hibiscus names: Chinese rose, Sudanese rose, Chinese hibiscus, Chinese rose, Bucum, African mallow, Chinese or Jamaican sorrel.
Popular types of hibiscus:
Lighting. For development, hibiscus must stand in a well-lit area. It should be protected from direct sunlight, so the plant should be shaded on the southern windows. Placed near the northern windows, as well as in the back of the room, Chinese hibiscus may refuse to bloom. In summer, it is advisable to take the Chinese rose outdoors.
Temperature. Optimum temperature for Chinese hibiscus: in summer - 18-25 ° C, in winter it is desirable to lower it to 16-18 ° C (for more abundant flowering). Make sure that the temperature does not drop below 10 ° C - hibiscus can shed its leaves.
Air humidity. Hibiscus loves spraying, especially in summer or during flowering. He also needs a warm shower to prevent spider mites and scabies.
Watering. Hibiscus needs abundant watering in the spring and summer. The topsoil should dry out a little between waterings (2-3 cm). In winter, with a cool wintering, watering is limited, but without overdrying the land. Watering is necessary with well-settled water at room temperature.
Top dressing. From April to September, the Chinese rose needs feeding once every 3 weeks. Fertilizers for flowering plants, or a complex mineral fertilizer, alternating with organic fertilizers are used for feeding.
In winter, hibiscus is usually not fed, or fed with phosphate-potassium fertilizer in a quarter of the dose (during flowering).
Transfer. The Chinese rose is usually transplanted in the spring. Young plants are transplanted annually into a pot 2-3 cm wider than the previous one, adults (from 5-6 years old) - once every 3-4 years. If hibiscus is transplanted into a pot that is too large, the plant may not flower (see Flowering). Hibiscus in a large tub may not be replanted, but the topsoil should be replaced. Before transplanting, the branches must be cut to a third of their length (see Pruning and shaping).
A mixture is prepared for transplantation: 1 tsp turf, 1 tsp leaf, 0.5 tsp humus earth and a little sand. The substrate must be nutritious. For young plants, 1 teaspoon of peat soil is added. At the bottom of the pot, drainage from expanded clay or broken clay shards, red brick is required.
Trimming and shaping. In the spring, when transplanting, it is necessary to prune the hibiscus. All dry and weak shoots, shoots without leaves are removed. Healthy shoots are cut from 1/3 to half the length of the branch. Flower buds will develop on young shoots.
To get a lush bush, the tops of the branches are periodically pinched.
Bloom. Usually hibiscus blooms in large flowers (8-12 cm) from early spring to late autumn. The color of the flowers is very diverse: white, orange, red, pink; shape: simple and terry. Flowers bloom from flower buds, which in turn are formed on young shoots after pruning. Therefore, pruning is necessary for hibiscus to bloom.
In order to shift the flowering period from spring to autumn-winter, until May the plant is kept in a cool room with limited watering. In May, a transplant and the first pruning of a Chinese rose are made. In July, a second pruning is done, due to which in autumn flower buds are laid on young shoots, from which flowers bloom in winter.
Reproduction. Hibiscus can be propagated by sowing seeds, but is usually propagated by cuttings.
For reproduction, either cuttings obtained from spring pruning are taken, or in July-August, green apical cuttings with 2-3 internodes are specially cut off. An internode is a section of the stem between two adjacent nodes, where the leaves are attached.
Cuttings can be placed in water until small white roots appear, but it is better to stick them directly into peat (peat with sand), after pretreating the sections with root or heteroauxin. The cuttings should be covered with a bag or jar to maintain moisture and periodically sprayed and watered. After 2-4 weeks, the rooted cutting is transplanted into a small pot with a mixture: 1 tsp turf, 1 tsp leaf, 0.5 tsp humus earth and a little sand. Drainage is needed at the bottom of the pot. Grown plants are pinched to increase bushiness.
Diseases and pests. If a hibiscus has buds or leaves falling off, the most likely cause is dry soil, a draft, or lack of lighting. Leaves shrivel due to too dry air.
Also, the plant is susceptible to attack by scale insects and aphids.
Plants in winter. It is optimal to keep a Chinese rose at a temperature of 14-16 ° C in winter with moderate watering and good lighting.
Interesting facts: The Chinese rose in Malaysia is called Bungaraya and is the national flower, one of the symbols of the country, depicted on coins.
Hibiscus sabdarifa is used to make hibiscus tea from dark red petals, cups and podashiyas (rosants). The drink contains many vitamins and organic acids, in particular, it contains citric acid, which help to improve the general condition of the body.
They also say that Chinese hibiscus cleans and heals indoor air well. The Chinese rose has a very positive effect on weakened and ailing plants, being nearby they strengthen and revive.
PHOTO OF CHINESE ROSE